Every institution of learning champions the acquisition of knowledge in diverse ways. Globally, the clamor for the increase in literacy rate has significantly risen in the past year due to the collaborative effort made toward closing the gap between the educated and uneducated. The emergence of technology and current digital trends has necessitated the need to acquire the skills required to be at par with most technological inventions.
In every academic place of learning, access to knowledge can become a tedious task when the right teaching methods are not employed, a situation that can pose an impediment to proper learning. The relationship between a tutor and a student must enhance an established connection between the duo to promote a seamless learning experience.
The teaching methods employed by a learning institution are a function of factors such as the learning environment, background knowledge, and the student’s interest. None of these teaching methods will be beneficial to the students if it is not relative to their area of interest in their studies. Is there one method fit for all teaching methods? How many of these methods have proven to be effective and consistent in their utilization?
WHAT ARE TEACHING METHODS
Teaching methods are a series of steps or rather methodologies applied by tutors to facilitate a good learning process for students. Here are some examples of these teaching methods.
TYPES OF TEACHING METHODS
- Direct Teaching Method
- Teacher-Centered Method
- The Lecture Method
- Discussion Method
- The Seminar Method
- The Study Assignment Method
- Participative Teaching Method
- Story–Telling Method
- Demonstration Method
- Tutorial Method
There are several other teaching methods besides the ones mentioned above but for the sake of this article, we will be considering ten. We will be shedding light on their specific features in the next section of this article.
DIRECT TEACHING METHOD
In a typical classroom scenario where the students and teachers engage in a learning process, presenting information to the students or the tutored through an approach that requires verbal communication of ideas and knowledge is the focus of any teaching method. Then, what exactly is a direct teaching method? and why is it the predominant teaching method employed by most institutions of learning?
Here, there is a utilization of an adequate feedback mechanism because the teaching method is direct hence providing room for conversation and response between the tutors and students. If the direct teaching method is employed, an assessment of the impact made through the teaching can be measured because of the feedback mechanism that is available in this method.
This seems to be the most utilized method in institutions of learning because it promotes an environment for interaction, feedback, and assessment analysis.
FEATURES OF DIRECT TEACHING METHODS
- Quite effective in the implementation of knowledge acquisition as it allows an open question-response atmosphere for the students and tutors
- Tutors can have a direct assessment of the impact of the knowledge instilled in the students
- The emotional and physiological aspects of the students can be identified and utilized to provide a seamless learning experience for the students.
In this type of teaching method, the tutor is at the center of the teaching activities. Tutoring, instructing, and preparing all the learning materials with the students passively involved in the process.
The learners or students are passive in the classroom but quite receptive when it comes to the learning period. This method of learning is employed for large classrooms or lectures, it enables the teacher to stay in control while the students just pay attention. It provides a shorter time for class activities since the interaction in the classroom is a bit lopsided, only tilting towards the teacher’s direction.
The teacher-centered teaching method creates room for learning independence on the path of the students because they are allowed to learn on their own and make certain decisions on their own. The teacher feels neither agitated nor embarrassed because there is minimal provision for dialogue where the students are involved in the process. There is no open question-response opportunity and the impact of direct assessment by the teacher is greatly limited.
Furthermore, in this teaching method, emphasis is laid on the acquisition of knowledge as every other facet of the learning process is ignored. Establishing a physical relationship between the students and teachers is curtailed and the identification of the emotional and physiological aspects of the students is not taken into consideration in this type of teaching method.
THE LECTURE METHOD
The teaching methods that can be utilized by any institution or individual depending on the preferred teaching approach used by them. The lecture method of teaching is the oldest method of teaching in the world.
From the time of great teachers of old to the development of contemporary learning systems, teaching has been a practice that has shaped history and lives for many centuries. This is further emphasized by the philosophy of idealism which establishes a connection between education and human nature. It asserts that human nature can be improved through education and this assertion has produced a trajectory of a formal and Informa-systems of education for centuries.
Socrates, Confucius, and several others trod this path of belief system and influenced millions through education. In the lecture method, the tutor explains the subject topic to the students and ensures the tutored has a grasp of the content of the subject matter. Methods employed in this lecture include gestures, verbal conversation, and simple devices such as projectors, writing boards, computers, and phones amongst others.
This type of teaching method tends to share a lot of similarities with the teacher-centered method because the students are passive while the teachers are active but the dynamic here is that there is room for interaction which provides feedback and attentiveness on the part of the student. This is the preferred method of teaching adopted by most higher institutions of learning across the globe.
FEATURES OF THE LECTURE METHOD
- The student’s attention and listening skills are greatly improved.
- The tutor can cover several topics with this method of teaching.
- The subject matter is taught in detail as the tutor is the main anchor during the learning process.
Another kind of teaching method is called discussion method, this is an open learning method that engages everybody involved in the process. It is a forum where everybody’s opinion is entertained and perspectives are shared, the focus of the discussion method of teaching is that it borders on learning and not on teaching in the real sense of it.
It is participatory hence enforcing the exchange of knowledge as everyone is allowed to make contributions and participate in the subject of discussion. In this method, nobody feels inferior or left out as the conversation is open to every member of the group. Tolerance is cultivated as students learn to accept the opinions of other members of the group regardless of their stance on the subject matter.
It paves way for a democratic way of thinking as everybody’s right to an opinion is validated. There is an awakening of self-thought and mind orientation as individuals become shaped by diverse opinions and beliefs.
FEATURES OF THE DISCUSSION METHOD
- All types of topics cannot be taught with the discussion method, especially the topic that requires expertise and professionalism.
- Children cannot be taught with this method
- Students with personality issues such as introverts and those with a very reserved nature might be ousted in the process of the discussion as the rather loud ones take center stage, outshining other members of the group
The seminar method, just as the name implies, is a teaching method that enables students to learn or form a discussion group on a specific topic under the supervision of a tutor or teacher. The discussion is usually supervised by the tutor and the students are guided all through the learning process.
It is typically the teaching method that is employed by institutions of higher learning because the students are indulged in a participatory conversation or learning to engage their attention, intuition, and learning skills. Interpersonal relationships are developed with this system of teaching as a longer period of interaction is initiated with students working in a group. The emotional and physiological attributes of students are acknowledged by the tutors because there is a close assessment of each student.
The seminar method of teaching employs instructional techniques which create a platform for the group to have a guided interaction on a specific subject of interest. Moreover, every member of the group is compelled to participate in one activity or the other.
FEATURES OF THE SEMINAR METHOD
- There is guidance and supervision during the learning process
- The students are actively involved in the seminar method
- This method motivates the students and an outstanding learning experience
- The learning ability of each participating student is evaluated and monitored
- The impact assessment of the entire learning experience can be evaluated with actual statistics
- It promotes cooperation amongst students
- It enhances coordination of goals and tasks
STUDY ASSIGNMENT METHOD
The study assignment method of teaching is fundamentally used for assessment. The students are given a series of assignments, which are meant to awaken their intellectual intuition and prompt findings that are geared towards unfolding answers that are meant to spur some mental alertness within the scope of an assignment
The students can either work individually, in pairs, or groups. They are expected to put on their thinking caps and come up with ideas that can solve the assigned task. This method is mostly utilized during the teaching of science as the students are often required to engage their minds in scientific analysis of various science topics. From the practical aspect of science to the theoretical approach used in making the learning process easy and relatable.
FEATURES OF THE STUDY ASSIGNMENT METHOD
- Student’s scientific potentials are unlocked through intuitive thinking
- There is an opportunity to explore a broad terrain of knowledge and learning
- Assessments of skills are easily evaluated through this teaching method
PARTICIPATIVE TEACHING METHOD
The participative teaching method encourages participation and individual contribution. Every student is involved in the learning experience to obtain the best result from the assigned task.
It is a method of teaching that is often utilized by organizations that champion the course for youth involvement or rather participation in global situations and scenarios. These teaching methods are hinged on experiential learning which spurs the youths into action. They are allowed to reflect on the impact of their contribution to society and are motivated to challenge stereotypes with a positive disposition. This method is primarily used by these organizations because collaboration, network, and communication are enhanced with this teaching method.
FEATURES OF THE PARTICIPATIVE TEACHING METHOD
- It is learner-centered because the participatory effort is required of every student or member of the group
- This method of teaching is comprehensive and process-oriented
- Real-life concerns are evaluated through the participative method of teaching
- Emotional intelligence is routinely spotted at play in this method because an experiential learning process is a wheel that pulls the cart of this process
- Intercultural connections and empathy is created using the participative teaching method as the subject of discussion or topic of interest is often seen through the perspective of those involved in that situation
- Individual and group learning synergy is strengthened
- Networking across local, regional, national, and international levels are established.
Several cultural and historic events were preserved through storytelling. In the absence of books, computers, or any method of preservation, history was handed down from one generation to another through storytelling.
In Africa, fables and folktales were told as stories either through narration or musicals. These teaching methods tore through the fabric of the past, walking through ancestral terrains that held the keys to the events that forged the link to the paths that we are treading today. Across the globe, storytelling has been employed by man since immemorial, either as a bedtime story or as a passive tale.
Today, storytelling has a way of engaging the mind by weaving images that are created by the idea that has been sold to the listeners. The mind is allowed to wander and foray into territories that will enhance a better understanding of the subject of interest. The storytelling method of teaching is suitable for children as it promotes an imaginative learning experience.
FEATURES OF A STORYTELLING METHOD
- Engages the mind to become creative
- Prompts imaginative abilities
- Suitable for children it helps to establish a connection between the teacher and the student
This method of teaching is full of activities as each participant is fully involved in the learning process. The teacher comes up with activities that can allow the participants to understand the topic of interest.
The demonstration method is suitable for children as they are more attentive when engaged in demonstrative activities.
This method of teaching is akin to the study assignment teaching method because the students are presented with views and illustrations which sheds light on the subject matter. In this method of teaching, demonstration of methods or processes that constitutes a particular topic is shown with the help of examples.